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Vincent with over 43, sq ft of gaming space over two floors. The resort is situated in the Aosta Valley, known as the Riviera of the Alps.
Find out more about gaming opportunities in Italy by reading our gambling guide here. Jersey is a Crown dependency of the UK. It is one of the Channel Islands and situated near the coast of Normandy, France.
There are no casinos on the island although the gambling law of would seem to allow them. There are no slots or video poker machines currently deployed in pubs or hotels.
However, the country does have a gambling commission and is positioned to become an important online gaming licensing jurisdiction.
Gambling is legal and highly regulated in the European micro state of Liechtenstein. Due to low tax rates and a relaxed financial regulatory regime, Liechtenstein has twice as many businesses as it has residents.
The population of under 40, people has the highest GDP per capita of any country in the world. However, there are no casinos in Liechtenstein.
A law was passed in that allows for casinos, but no operator has taken the plunge as of late There is only one casino in Luxembourg.
Casino is a gambling casino, hotel, and entertainment complex at Mondorf-les-Bains in the southern part of the country.
Casino offers 6 gaming tables and slots and electronic roulette machines. About half a million people a year visit Casino for gambling, dining, shows, accommodations, or conferences.
Attempts had been made to open a casino in Mondorf-les-Bains since the s and in the country's sole casino finally opened.
Malta is an island country in Europe on an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. The closest neighbor to the north is Italy, and to the west km away is the North African coast and Tunisia.
There are four casinos in Malta and the country has its own regulatory body which oversees those and issues online gaming licenses. Dragonara Casino on the coast in St.
Julians is the oldest gambling venue in the country. The casino opened in a nineteenth-century palace in After a complete refurbishment, it re-opened in Paul's Bay, Bugibba and the Casino at Portomaso.
Tumas Gaming Ltd owns the latter two. Casino Malta by Olympic Casino in St. Julians offers more gaming positions than any other with 29 tables, slots, and a 10 table poker room.
The casino opened in The Casino at Portomaso is also in St. Juliens and offers poker tournament space for up to 1, during big events, as well as slots and 14 table games.
Paul's Bay and offers a vast array of games over their 15 tables along with slots, video poker, and virtual horse racing. To explore the casinos of Malta please see our gambling guide here.
Monte Carlo is the place of casino legends as well as myths like James Bond and represents the ultimate in allure and intrigue for the romantic gambler.
The word, "Opulence" doesn't begin to describe the luxurious setting. Be sure to play some punto banco Baccarat here so you'll have no regrets later.
Cafe de Paris is a modern casino with two open-air terraces for gaming so that gamblers can enjoy a night breeze on the French Riviera.
Monte Carlo Bay Resort and Casino is contemporary and features multiple venues and attractions such as a private beach and separate beach club.
Sun Casino at the Fairmont Monte-Carlo offers a full range of table games and slot machines. If you'd like to explore more of the history of Monaco and find out why Monte Carlo is so well-known please see our Monaco gambling guide.
The Netherlands is a country in northwestern Europe where many of the 17 million citizens have a healthy appetite for gambling.
You will find over casinos spread throughout nearly cities from Bergen op Zoom in the south to Groningen in the north of Holland as well as Rotterdam , The Hague , Amsterdam , and all points between and beyond.
There are 14 full casinos and the balance offers a variety of poker, bingo games, slots and other electronic games. Holland Casino is the purveyor of traditional casino games such as blackjack, roulette, and punto banco as well as slots and poker.
Holland Casino Rotterdam is the biggest casino in the Netherlands with table games, electronic gaming machines, and 8 poker tables. In Amsterdam, you'll find a dozen casinos offering electronics and poker along with Holland Casino Amsterdam.
Lucky Jack runs for casino there including Lucky Jack — Buikslotermeerplein. The Dutch love to gamble. To learn more about what they have to offer please visit our gambling guide here.
Gambling in Norway is mostly an illegal activity except under certain circumstances. The government maintains a gambling monopoly through two agencies.
Norsk Tipping offers sports betting, Keno, scratch cards, and a lottery draw game. Norsk Ristoko administers race betting. Poker games at home are allowed under the law as long as the game doesn't operate as a business.
All true slot machines were banned in and replaced by IVTs interactive video terminals in Players must use a special card to play the games.
Players must commit to a budget before playing, take breaks at certain intervals, etc. To learn more about gambling in Norway please see our gambling guide.
Portugal is located on the tip of the Iberian Peninsula in Western Europe. It shares a border with Spain and has shores on the Atlantic Ocean. There are about a dozen casinos in Portugal.
Five of the casinos are operated by Solverde Group , in the Portuguese hospitality business since All of the casinos are located on or near the coast on the west side of the country.
Casino Estoril in Lisbon is touted as the largest casino in all of Europe. By area, the gaming floor only covers 26, square feet, but the casino holds 1, gaming machines and 35 table games.
In addition to poker and slots, most casinos offer blackjack, roulette, and punto banco, but most also offer games with local color and flavor such as the high-paced 3 dice game of Banca Francesa.
To learn more about these and other casinos or to explore attractions and lodging opportunities in Portugal please visit our gambling guide here.
San Marino is a landlocked sovereign state surrounded by Italy. The entire country has an area of less than 25 square miles and a population of just over 30, San Marino reportedly gained independence from the Roman Empire over 1, years ago and has remained a sovereign state to this day.
Casino gambling was legalized in the late s but was later banned by the government when it came under communist rule temporarily in the s. The Giochi del Titano casino there is located near the northeastern border with Cerasolo Italy just off Strada Statale Slovakia is bordered by Austria, Hungary, Poland, and Ukraine.
In May , the capital city of Bratislava voted for an absolute ban on casinos there. However, casinos will only close as their licenses expire.
The last to close will be Banco Casino in the Crowne Plaza hotel in There are about 20 casinos in the country with 7 casinos in Bratislava.
Other cities with casinos include Nitra, Trnava, Zilina, and Zvolen among others. Casino Admiral Bratislava is in the northeast section of town and offers gaming machines and 11 tables, a restaurant and bar.
On the other side of town, you will find Rebuy Stars Casino Bratislava with slots and electronic roulette.
There are also Casino Admiral locations in Nitra and Trnava. To read more about all of the gaming options in Slovakia please see our gambling guide.
Spain has a long, rich history of gambling going back over years. Skill-based gaming was authorized in the 's and slots in There are more than 60 casinos in Spain, but most of the nearly , slots lie outside of the actual casinos in bars and taverns.
Another casino that is grand for more than its gaming is Casino Peralada in Girona. The casino in a midth-century castle built outside the walls of an earlier set of a dynasty is a major attraction.
For nightlife it's got to be Ibizi or Marbella in southern Spain. If you'd like to explore more of the casinos of Spain, please see our gambling guide.
Svalbard and Jan Mayen, although not a country, has a statistical designation as a place and for such purposes, Svalbard and Jan Mayen are combined by the International Organization for Standardization into a single category ISO even though they are administered separately.
Svalbard is an Arctic Ocean archipelago which is under the full sovereignty of Norway, subject to a treaty. There are no permanent residents of Jan Mayen.
There are no casinos in either of these areas, but researchers could use satellite communications to play a few slots while posted there.
Sweden offers citizens visitors multiple ways to gamble from the state-owned lottery Penning Lotteriet in existence since to the four land-based casinos, the first of which, Casino Cosmopol Sundsvall opened in in a refurbished train station circa Players must be 18 to gamble online, play the lottery, or spin slots.
In order to play casino games you must be All of the country's casinos are state-owned by Svenska Spel and operated by subsidiary Casino Cosmopol.
All profits are claimed by the national treasury of Sweden. Although the casinos are highly regulated, games like blackjack and slots can be found at pubs and ferries all over the country, with those slots getting very little action.
All of them offer regular local and national poker tournaments. Poker is not allowed in bars and pubs. Casino Cosmopol Stockholm was the last of the casinos to open in It is also the biggest casino in terms of gaming offers.
The Stockholm casino has 46 tables and slot machines. All of the casino present locally relevant architecture. If you want to know more about gambling in Sweden please see our gambling guide.
Switzerland is bordered by France, Italy, and Germany. Gambling has been allowed since , so all of the country's 20 casinos are relatively modern.
They are spread out around the country with several in the interior. Poker is popular in Switzerland and most casinos offer the games. Casino Interlaken Kursaal in the Bernese Oberland mountain region of central Switzerland offers another experience altogether for those who venture out during the day.
Swiss Casino - Zurich is the largest casino in the country with table games, poker, and slots and video poker machines. Many casinos including Gran Casino Bern , offer Europe's largest tax-free jackpot with their progressive Swiss Jackpot.
Gamblers must be at least Opening hours and dress codes vary greatly from property to property, as do opening hours.
To learn more about casinos in Switzerland please see our gambling guide here. Citizens of the United Kingdom are well known for their want to have a flutter, and none more so than the British.
There are over 1, betting shops in London alone. The most legendary area for casinos in London is Mayfair, home to the legendary Ritz Club located in iconic Piccadilly Street.
And then there is Crockfords Club. The first casino in Great Britain was River Casino on the Thames and the first land casino opened in Brighton in It was known as Metropole Brighton.
But gambling is not confined to England. For a complete list of UK casinos by country visit our gambling guide here.
Vatican City is a city-state completely surrounded by Rome, Italy. It is the home of the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope.
Gambling is not allowed in Vatican City. However, international oddsmakers do occasionally post betting lines related to Vatican City events, such as who the next Pope will be.
Oddsmakers have very poor prognostication skills when it comes to such rare events so you may be able to pick up odds as lucrative as However, our suggestion would be to explore some of the richly historic gambling venues of Italy proper.
Please click here to read our Italy gambling guide. Canada is a sparsely populated North American country situated above the United States on the map.
Casinos in the country are usually owned by provincial lottery corporations in association with private business, or by First Nation tribes.
Canadian residents and visitors will find casinos from the Pacific coastal province of British Columbia in the west to the most easterly province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
In addition to more than casinos, there are also more than 20 horse racing tracks in Canada. Several of the facilities also host slot parlors.
Lottery corporations also authorize sports betting outlets province by province. Check out all of the ways to gamble in Canada by reading our gambling guide here.
Greenland is an autonomous Danish territory comprising a very large island mostly exhibiting coastlines with fjords situated between the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans.
Most of the people there live on the coasts where the ice-free land is to be found. As a rule, the government does not translate their laws into English so it is unclear if casinos are legal or not.
However, no casinos are to be found in Greenland. This could be due to a lack of much of a tourist economy in the country, other economic barriers, or legal issues.
Mexico is in North America situated between the U. Known for ancient ruins and Spanish colonial-era towns the country is also famous for a diverse landscape including deserts, jungles, mountains, and beaches along the Pacific Gulf of Mexico coastlines.
Casinos were outlawed in Mexico in but authorized again in Visitors will find over casinos in Mexico, but most of them are small electronic bingo and server controlled slot parlors for the most part, with only a few truly opulent venues of good size anywhere in the country.
To learn more about the casinos of Mexico please visit our Mexico gambling guide. Saint Pierre and Miquelon is a French overseas collectivity on an archipelago south of Canadia's Newfoundland island.
Only about 6, people live there, and there are no casinos on any of the islands or islets. The island's location has occasionally made it strategically important in times of war and it has traded hands several times.
The archipelago was also an important transfer point for Canadian whiskey destined for the United States during alcohol prohibition. The island plunged into economic depression with the end of the alcohol ban in The United States of America has more casinos than any other country in the world.
Almost half of the US states offer commercial casinos and even more states have Native American casinos located on tribal lands.
Slot machines can be found in virtually every casino in the United States and were invented in the U.
Las Vegas , Nevada is known all over the world as the birthplace of modern gambling. Sin City also introduced the integrated resort experience to draw family and business visitors.
World class entertainment, dining, nightlife, accommodations, and meeting facilities are now the standard for gambling hubs everywhere. To learn more about gambling in the country and to explore nearly 2, licensed casinos there please see our United States gambling guide.
Argentina is a South American country with a passion for gambling. With well over casinos and gambling halls spread over 10 seperate corridors, visitors will find everything from punto banco to video slots and all things in between.
From the magnificent Trilenium Casino in Tigre with over , sq ft of gaming floor to the iconic Casino Central in Mar del Plata with it's stunning architecture which opened in , gamblers needs are met with a fervor.
Casinos in Argentina offer all of the games you would expect to find in a place like Las Vegas as well as casino cruise ships, horse racing, bingo and lotteries.
For in-depth reading about all of the gambling opportunities in Argentina see our gambling guide here.
Bolivia is a central South American country with diverse geography including an Amazon Basin rain forest, the Atacama Desert, Altiplano plateau, and the Andes Mountains.
The country has a thriving underground gambling culture due to any form of gambling being illegal from until Casinos were finally authorized in and the Gaming Control Board was established in Electronic bingo rooms and other pseudo-casinos thrive under lottery operator Lotex S.
The Moscow-based firm operates over 1, venues, mostly in eastern Europe but also in Africa, Peru, Mexico, and Bolivia.
To learn more about gambling in Bolivia please see our gambling guide here. Brazil is an enormous South American country with an area of 3,, square miles.
Casinos have been banned in Brazil since and the country's bingo halls were shut down in over concerns of organized crime and money laundering.
Brazilian law currently allows federal lotteries and horse race betting. Casinos may be coming to Brazil as the government wrestles with a recession that has lasted over a quarter of a century.
If legislation is approved it could open one of the most important new gambling markets in history. Stay tuned to news on important developments and read more about gambling in Brazil in our gambling guide.
Chile has 17 casinos operating under Law No. Another 7 tenders for true casinos are authorized under a law and 7 more municipal casinos were recently brought under the superintendent's authority.
In there were 24 casinos in operation. A recent study by the government showed over 30, illegal machines in various slot parlors and electronic gaming venues outside of the casinos.
The Sun Monticello Casino which opened in about 45 minutes away from Santiago is the largest casino in the country and is part of a 5 star hotel, spa, and nightclub complex with ten gourmet restaurants.
All of the casinos are on or near the Pacific Coast of Chile offering easy access to beaches, sunshine, and outdoor activities. For a complete rundown on casinos and other gaming in Chile please see our gambling guide here.
Colombia has come into its own over the last decade or so and now the country hosts several high quality casinos. Although spread over at least 25 villages and cities, Bogota has more casinos than any other city.
New modern venues are being opened in places like Cartagena as well. The Caribbean coastal atmosphere and attractive city spanning old and new, plus a good population of tourists and locals make Cartegena the new go-to city in Columbia for gambling.
Codere Group's Crown Casino Zona T in Bogota is a magnificent casino with all the gaming and entertainment one could expect spread over more than 40, sq ft and five levels.
In Cartegena Sun Nao Casino is a must-go place for gamblers to enjoy casino gaming. Inside the Nao shopping center visitors will find a 5-star hotel, cinemas, dining, and more.
To learn more about all of the gaming opportunities in Columbia see our gambling guide. Casinos operated in Ecuador from until when they were banned by presidential decree after a narrowly defeated voter referendum.
However, the underground casino economy only contributes to money laundering and in March of the country was placed on the US government's blacklist of top offenders in its annual report on drug trafficking and financial crimes.
The May , inauguration of a new president is not expected to change things. For more history on gambling in Ecuador please see our gambling guide here.
The population hovers below 3, residents and there is no regulated gambling there. The largest city and capital, Stanley, holds two-thirds of the British Overseas Territory's inhabitants.
Great Britain invaded the Falklands in The war is memorialized in a museum there. French Guiana is situated on the northeastern coast of South America.
The capital city of Cayenne is resplendent with colorful houses and colonial architecture. As an overseas region of France, it is subject to French gambling law, and although it is technically possible for casinos to be licensed there, it is not very likely any ever will be.
Guyana , not to be confused with the French overseas region of French Guiana, is a Caribbean identifying sovereign nation situated on the mainland of South America in the north.
It is separated from French Guiana by Suriname and shares its other borders with Venezuela and Brazil.
There are no casinos in Guyana and precious few in any of its neighboring countries. Many tourist attracting countries have a casino component and beautiful Paraguay is nor exception.
Shops, grocers, and pharmacies were banned from offering machines in late to keep under-aged gambling to a minimum. Amabay Hotel Casino offers complete casino gaming including poker.
Hotel and Casino Acaray in Del Este offers 4-star accommodations and a nice casino. To see all of the casinos in Paraguay be sure to visit our gambling guide here.
Peru is literally littered with hundreds of seedy little slots parlors that most visitors would be advised to stay away from. The country also has a lot of legitimate casinos offering blackjack, roulette, craps, poker, and more.
There are several truly high-class venues and gamblers will feel safe in any of the more popular places. Until Sun Dreams brings a true Las Vegas experience to Peru there are still some quality casinos to try your luck in.
While in the neighborhood the Atlantic City Casino is just down the street and offers over machines, 31 tables and a non-smoking poker room upstairs.
To learn more about gambling in Peru and see all of the casinos, please see our gambling guide. Suriname is often forgotten when thinking of South America.
With a rich history and melting pot population, there are also problems there with governments issuing travel advisories.
But, if you are an adventurer, the smallest country on the continent may appeal to you with vast tropical rain forests, 17th Century Dutch architecture, and of course, casinos.
The casinos of Suriname are located in the capital city of Paramaribo. All offer accommodation services. The Torarica Hotel has a small casino, and there are a handful of other options.
For a complete list of Suriname casinos please visit our gambling guide here. Although Uruguay is small 68, sq mi and about half of the country's population lives in Montevideo, the country packs a lot of casino excitement into its small space as casinos are scattered throughout the countryside with a minor concentration in the capital city.
For more information on casinos and gambling in Uruguay see our gambling guide. Venezuela was once one of the most powerful growing economies in the world, let alone South America, but economic pressures and political strife have made it a place not likely to be visited by many casino patrons.
American Samoa is a U. Territory in the South Pacific Ocean that comprises 7 islands and atolls. The capital, Pago Pago is on the largest island, Tutuila.
There are no casinos on any of the islands but cruise ships entering the Pago Pago Seaport may offer gambling when in international waters.
Visitors to the nearby country of Samoa will find casino gambling. Australians love to gamble whether on sports or casino games and the casino population of the huge country reflects that fact.
Including the various pokie parlors or slot halls we count about places to have a flutter. To explore all of the casinos and gambling opportunities down under see our gambling guide here.
Most of the Australian territory is covered by a national park with wetlands and waterfalls drawing hikers into the rainforest there.
Snorkeling and diving reefs ring the island. It is also home to the former Christmas Island Resort, or Christmas Island Casino that operated for 4 years beginning in There were rumblings of a potential reopening of the casino in but as of late nothing has come to pass.
There are 27 islands altogether in 2 coral atolls. The main islands are dubbed Home Island and West Island.
Some of the uninhabited islands require permission for access. Coconuts are the territory's only cash crop. There are no casinos in the Cocos Keeling Islands.
The country comprises 15 islands that are scattered far and wide over 1,, square kilometers , sq mi of the ocean. Tourism is the country's main industry with about , visitors each year.
Online and land based gambling is legal in the country, but locals are opposed to casino development and there are no casinos on the Cook Islands. It occupies about half of the island of Timor, the other half is part of Indonesia.
There are no casinos in East Timor as of but there are rumors of a major development that could include a casino at Atauro being planned in secrecy.
Fiji is a tropical paradise located in the South Pacific Ocean comprising about individual islands. Most of the population is centered on the islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu.
The capital, Suva, is located on Vanua Levu. Efforts to bring a casino to Fiji have been underway for some time but were tied up in the courts for years.
French Polynesia comprises over islands in multiple South Pacific archipelagos. Visitors come to experience the vivid turquoise lagoons ringed by coral and to sleep in bungalows that are placed over the water.
There is no organized gambling in French Polynesia. Guam is a U. It offers one of the most equable climates on earth, meaning that temperatures on the tropical island remain consistent all year long.
Pachinko games and betting on greyhound races are legal. Up until summer , small casinos were set up at festivals and fairs but have since been banned.
The nearest casinos are about miles away in Saipan. Kiribati is an equatorial island nation in the Central Pacific comprised of more than 30 coral atolls, isles, and islets disbursed over more than a million square miles of ocean.
Kiribati gained independence from the UK in There are no organized gambling activities or casinos in Kiribati.
The area was used by the US military for testing nuclear bombs including a hydrogen bomb test in There are no casinos in the Marshall Islands.
Micronesia , or more specifically, the Federated States of Micronesia is a country in the western Pacific Ocean that is made up of over islands.
Pohnpei, Kosrae, Chuuk, and Yap make up the four states. The Federated States of Micronesia should not be confused with the subregion of Oceania Micronesia that includes the federated states.
The Micronesia sub region includes four other independent nations and three U. As is the case with many Pacific island realms, there is almost always chatter of potential Chinese casino resort development.
Pohnpei and Yap have been mentioned throughout the years as being under consideration for development.
Nauru, formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an independent island nation located in Micronesia. Nauru is the third smallest nation in the world by area with only Vatican City and Monaco being smaller.
It is also the smallest state in the South Pacific. Formerly a source of phosphates for Australia and others, the resources have been exhausted and Nauru was forced to act as a detention center for Australia in order to receive aid.
It has also been known as a tax haven and money laundering center. There are no casinos on Nauru. New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific with legal gambling.
There are two casinos on the archipelago. The official language is French and they use their own local currency pegged to the euro at a rate of 1, CFP: To learn more about gambling in New Caledonia or to read casino profiles please see our gambling guide here.
New Zealand has six casinos, most of them operated by the Skycity Entertainment Group. Unlike most jurisdictions, in New Zealand, the minimum legal age to enter a casino is 20 years.
The first casino opened in and the Gambling Act of codified regulations that are mostly concerned with operators. Most winnings, except for poker, are not taxed in New Zealand.
And finally, they own Christchurch Casino. For something a little different head up to Dunedin. For full details on all the casinos in New Zealand including booking information for lodging, please see our gambling guide here.
Niue is a Pacific island nation near Tonga. It is one of the largest raised coral atolls on earth, meaning the interior is covered by land rather than being a lagoon.
Visitors can walk through fossilized coral forests to arrive at ancient chasms in the Huvalu Forest Conservation Area. There are no gambling facilities in Niue.
It is a commonwealth of Australia and formerly an Australian racing jurisdiction. In late the Norfolk Island Gaming Authority was closed after giving a wagering license to one of the largest illegal online betting operators in Asia.
It is unclear if horse racing, which only occurred twice each year on the island, will continue. Only a few of the islands are populated and in the past casinos have been located on Tinian and Rota.
Imperial Pacific opened Best Sunshine Live , a temporary casino, in and the property consistently outperformed even Macau in VIP chip roll per table.
To learn more about gambling in the CNMI please see our gambling guide here. Palau is located in the western Pacific Ocean and is part of the Micronesia region.
Estimates of the number of islands in the country range from to depending on the source. There are between and uninhabited Rock Islands or Chelbacheb in the western part of the Caroline Islands chain.
The population is estimated to be under 20, and about two-thirds live on Koror. There is no organized gambling in Palau. The last bill died without a reading in The capital, Port Moresby, has been the home to at least two casinos in the past but as of none seem to be in operation.
The country does have fairly up-to-date gambling laws and a gambling commission. The National Gaming Control Board was created in and oversees terrestrial and online gaming licensees.
Pitcairn is the only inhabited island and has about 50 residents. The administrative headquarters for Pitcairn is located in Auckland New Zealand.
Samoa is volcanic island nation in the South Pacific situated between the far shores of New Zealand and Hawaii. There are four smaller islands off the coasts of the two main islands: There is an international airport on Upolu in the capital city of Apia.
A casino has been planned for Apia for several years following the opening of Samoa's first casino in Read more about gambling in Samoa in our gambling guide.
The nation's islands are scattered over about miles. Several active and dormant volcanoes can be found throughout the archipelago.
Two casinos can be found in the capital city of Honiara. To explore the casinos and learn more about gambling in the Solomon Islands see our gambling guide.
The tropical island territory comprises three coral atolls roughly midway between Hawaii and New Zealand and about miles north of Samoa.
Bring your own mattress. You will need special permission to visit the territory. There are no casinos in Tokelau. While visiting Samoa to obtain permission to visit you can gamble at a Samoan casino.
Tonga is a South Pacific Polynesian kingdom that encompasses over islands. Fiji and Samoa are its most well-known neighbors within a thousand miles.
Having one of the strongest castles in the world according to Froissart , it changed ownership six times as a result of transactions or seats, never by force of arms.
The fortress resisted the soldiers of Edward III in In , the city was besieged by Charles V as the rest of the Norman possessions of the King of Navarre, but in vain.
Bertrand du Guesclin besieged it for six months using many machines of war, but abandoned the siege in December It was only his son Charles the Noble who recovered it in Fallen in to the hands of the English, Cherbourg, the last English possession of the Duchy of Normandy after the Battle of Formigny , was released on 12 August On 28 April , Cherbourg was visited with great fanfare by Francis I and the dauphin.
Inside the city walls, the castle, itself protected by wide moats and equipped with a keep and twelve towers, was south-east of the city. Outside and to the south of the city walls, the suburb along the Divette was frequented by sailors.
In , Vauban offered to strengthen the fortifications of Cherbourg, and close Cherbourg Harbour with two sea walls, but preferred La Hogue for the establishment of a major military port.
The commercial port dug at the current position of the place Divette between and , was devastated in August by an English attack under the orders of General Bligh and Admiral Howe.
The British destroyed military buildings and warehouses before departing. The population increased from feus 4, inhabitants in Cherbourg and 95 in Octeville, around , to 7, people in Cherbourg by However, the reduction of subsidies and the revolutionary events slowed work down, until its suspension in First Consul Bonaparte wanted to turn Cherbourg into a major military port, for the invasion of the United Kingdom.
He charged Joseph Cachin with the resumption of the work of the sea wall, the digging of military outer harbour , and the construction of the new arsenal.
After a visit in , Napoleon made Cherbourg a maritime prefecture , a chef-lieu of the Arrondissements of the Manche department and the seat of a court of first instance.
The work of the central sea wall, interrupted again between and , ended in , the east and west sea walls in The work of the sea wall was concluded by the construction of the small harbour Homet sea wall, and sea wall of the Flemings, The work of the port led the intensification and spread of a modernising and developing Cherbourg, while contractors, owners, and local merchants were getting richer.
After the creation of the Route des Pieux current Rue Salengro and Rue Carnot , the town was formed around an homogenised street-village then urbanising at the beginning of the 20th century.
The warship of the Confederates, the CSS Alabama was sunk by the ship of the Union USS Kearsarge after two hours of fighting [see the Battle of Cherbourg ], under the eye of thousands of spectators, who had arrived by train for the inauguration of the casino.
Visualizing the fight from a sailboat, Manet immortalised it in The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama. From , the geographical and technical properties of the port of Cherbourg attracted shipping companies linking European ports to the east coast of the United States.
In , Cherbourg received ships and 70, passengers. During the First World War , traffic was completely suspended. Cherbourg became the place of arrival for equipment and the British and American troops, and for departure on leave and injuries.
The military port experienced an increase in activity, and the garrison stationed at Cherbourg was reinforced. The port infrastructures were developed to receive coal and oil required for the conflict.
Traffic doubled, reaching , tons in Transatlantic transit resumed in the aftermath of the war with the British, American and Dutch transatlantic companies.
To welcome the best stopovers, the Chamber of Commerce built a deep water port, a new ferry terminal, and an area dedicated to loading, unloading and storage of goods in the field of Mielles.
However, the crisis put an end to the transatlantic peak. During the Second World War — , the German Army occupied the north of France and fortified the coastline against invasion.
As a deep-water port, Cherbourg was of strategic importance, very heavily protected against seaborne assault. The Germans arrived on the outskirts of Cherbourg on 17 June , towards the end of the Battle of France.
Four years later, Cherbourg, the only deep-water port in the region, was the primary objective of the American troops who had landed at Utah Beach during the Battle of Normandy.
The Battle of Cherbourg was required to give the Allies a point of logistic support for human resupply and material of the troops.
American troops encircled the city on 21 June After a month of demining and repairs by American and French engineers, the port, completely razed by the Germans and the bombing, welcomed the first Liberty ships and became, until the victory of , the largest port in the world, with traffic double that of New York.
Cherbourg was returned to France by the Americans on 14 October Thanks to the urgency of the port reconstruction, economic activity resumed quickly.
The postwar boom led to the modernisation of the economy and a greater role for female employment. Under the leadership of General de Gaulle , Cherbourg became the hub of nuclear ballistic missile submarine construction from , including the first, Le Redoutable , which was launched in From the end of the s, the nuclear industry emerged through the construction sites of the La Hague reprocessing plant and the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant in addition to submarines of the DCN.
A union of trade unions, left-wing activists and environmentalists, formed around the fear of the "nuclearisation" of Nord-Cotentin, crystallised in January when the Pacific Fisher landed with the first spent nuclear waste from Japan.
On the eve of the s, the Cherbourg agglomeration was hit by several violent social conflicts, particularly due to the closure of the Babcock factories.
The major decisions of the public authorities, on which Cherbourg has depended for many centuries, and the nuclear industry, caused a deep economic crisis in the s.
The new millennium began with the creation of a new commune. Cherbourg-Octeville was created on 1 March through the joining of Cherbourg and Octeville, following a local referendum within "Grand Cherbourg".
Meanwhile, the traditional activities of the port passengers, freight and fishing were in crisis. The Norman language writer Alfred Rossel , a native of Cherbourg, composed many songs which form part of the heritage of the region.
The local dialect is known as Cotentinais. La Glacerie was named for glass factory. The factory in La Glacerie was destroyed by Allied bombardments in during the Normandy invasion.
See the Battle of Cherbourg The city had five streets: After the dismantling of the walls, inside which lived three-fifths of the population,  the city extended up to its natural boundaries at the end of the 17th century: Its rapid growth from the end of the 18th century was spoken of by Jean Fleury, in , in that it "offers almost everywhere the appearance of a new town; the old streets occupy little space, and the others are generally large and airy, the fountains numerous [ Cherbourg has 10 squares, 59 streets, 12 cul-de-sacs and 5 passages.
Damaged during all eras, rebuilt in piecemeal, the city has no architectural unity. Shale, extracted from the quarries of the agglomeration, is the traditional material of construction.
With widespread coverage in the northern Cotentin, it is also used in Cherbourg for the walls in the city, apparent or often covered with a grayish or sometimes colourful coating.
The frames are then Valognes stone limestone , pink granite of Fermanville, or brick, and the underpinnings Armorican sandstone of the Roule and the Fauconniere.
The expansion of the city from the 18th century contributed to the diversity of materials. The use of Caen stone and industrial brick was necessary under the Second Empire, while vernacular architecture disappeared gradually in these years in favour of a more homogeneous and Parisian style.
Cherbourg and its agglomeration has urbanised around the ports and along the coast. With post-war reconstruction and the economic development of the Trente Glorieuses , the city is experiencing a crisis of housing due to the demographic boom, having built on the last vacant land.
Indeed, a report evaluated 1, inhabitant families living in slums, and called for 1, housing units. Port Chantereyne and the Mielles lands are reclaimed from the sea, the Place Divette and Boulevard Schuman are created at the site of the old fairground.
However, at that time, the change mainly affected nearby villages that formed an agglomeration in less than forty years. Octeville, a dispersed habitat until the 18th century, and urbanised during the work of the port around a central street,  saw the housing estate of the Provinces settle on the heights of la Fauconniere and triple its population in 20 years.
Several estates also emerging at Tourlaville, La Glacerie, Querquerville and Equeurdreville, amending the physiognomy of a suburb which densified.
Following this merger, a plan of urban renewal named "Between Land and Sea" was launched in on the quarters of Bassins, of the Amont-Quentin and the Provinces to homogenise the territory of the newly alamgamated city.
On the heights, seven HLM tower blocks are intended for demolition to improve social housing. A 3-star hotel and the relocation of the casino is also planned.
Since , Cherbourg-Octeville is covered by a sensitive urban zone on the expanded area of the Provinces. The construction of the dam and the military port has brought an important flow of workers and soldiers.
Cherbourg and Octeville have seen their populations quadruple in a century. Cherbourg had 43, inhabitants at the beginning of the 20th century.
During this century, Cherbourg losing some 15, inhabitants, while Octeville grew continuously, with an explosion in the s and s, during the construction of the housing estates.
The agglomeration was 84, inhabitants  and the urban area , inhabitants. The depopulation of the city-centre of the agglomeration was one of the main topics of the campaign for the municipal elections of Demographic changes of Cherbourg and Octeville compared, before their merger.
Today, the neighbouring communes of the metropolitan area Martinvast, Nouainville, Tonneville, Bretteville, etc.
The framework of life, rural and peaceful, in no way prevents the inhabitants from taking advantage of the infrastructure of the urban community.
Since the merger between Cherbourg and Octeville, in February , the inhabitants are officially called Cherbourgeois-Octevillais.
It is likely that, with the merger, the latter disappears gradually in favour of Cherbourgeois. Cherbourg and Octeville have two different profiles. The first is the city centre, with varied habitat, the other a commune in suburbs, built quickly from the s.
Thus, in , in Cherbourg there were 13, dwellings including Several HLM agencies are responsible for social housing of the agglomeration: The second half of the 19th century saw the creation of many English-style gardens.
Then, under the Third Republic, public gardens opened. The commune also has allotments , managed by associations: In , the municipality was awarded four flowers in the competition of flowery towns and villages.
At the instigation of Colbert , the guild of drapers was founded on 16 April , the manufacture of cloth produced two thousand pieces per year.
In the 18th century, the economic resources came mainly through maritime trade, the preparation of cured meats and the harbour and breakwater works, plus a moribund textile industry.
Exports were mainly to Britain sheets and cloths and the West Indies cattle and mules, fat and salted butter, salted meats, cod, linens and canvas , but also to Le Havre and La Rochelle for wood and coal.
Lawful or otherwise exchanges also took place with the Channel Islands tanbark , grain and wool. Cherbourg shipowners were absent from significant fishing, including that of cod on the banks of Newfoundland , which was a specialty of Granville.
Cherbourg also had seven producers of starch. Sailing ships were built, the first, the brig La Colombe , was launched on 27 September , and then screw-propelled vessels up to the end of the 19th century.
The first were Le Morse and Le Narval. Since then, more than 91 vessels have been built there. L'Annuaire de la Manche [The Yearbook of Manche] in mentioned several slate quarries in the agglomeration whose product was sometimes exported to Le Havre, two printers, two soda refineries properties of Mr.
Le Couturier and Messrs. Blod and Lange and several tanners. He added the maritime buildings and armaments and the export of butter of La Hague , and the total annual trade was estimated at between 4 or 5 million francs, of which one million for the export of eggs to the United Kingdom , and tons of salted meat.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Cherbourg was primarily a military port. At this time the port embraced the transatlantic epic.
Cherbourg's industry was then specialised in shipbuilding, as well as in lace-making and the manufacture of rope.
Gradually, workers developed a particular skill in metalwork, both for the submarines of the Arsenal, for aircraft and ships of the Amiot shipyards or Babcock - Wilcox boilers.
The s saw a revival of the local economy through the increase in the female workforce and the decline of agricultural employment in favour of diversification of jobs and a high-tech industry.
One hundred employees manufactured projectors and film cameras, particularly for the ORTF and Russian television. Since , it has been dedicated to the production of microwave electronic devices, employing workers in contracted for radars of the Mirage F1 Army Air and of the Navy Super Etendards , rising to employees at the end of the s, after moving in into a new modernised factory in Tourlaville.
For a decade, the electronic workshop expanded, adding a production line for mobile television relays, and a workshop for mechanical surface treatment.
The unit, seen as a flagship of French industry by the new president of the Republic in , was considered unnecessary after the integration of Thomson's telephony division with Alcatel in and suffered heavy redundancies from the end of the s, before closing in at the end of a difficult social conflict.
The old buildings of Halley House became the technical centre of the Cachin vocational school, on Avenue Aristide-Briand. In , the economically active population of Cherbourg and Octeville was 18, inhabitants in a total population of 42, inhabitants.
Cherbourg-Octeville supports an unemployment rate At 31 December , there were 3, jobseekers. The Cherbourg economy derives a large part of its activities from its maritime position.
A military port, a fishing port, a port of commerce passenger traffic and cross-border goods and a marina.
Weakened since the s, the commercial port sees the transit of , trucks to or from Ireland and Great Britain.
Project Fastship , involving container transport from Philadelphia United States by high-speed vessels and oped for fifteen years, has been forgotten in favour of the Motorways of the Sea in the context of the Ena Eurocoast Network Association , with Cuxhaven Germany , Ostend Belgium , Rosslare Ireland and Ferrol Spain , with no more effect at the moment.
In recent years, the cross-Channel passenger traffic has declined, with competition from Caen-Ouistreham and the Pas-de-Calais.
In the first eleven months of compared with the same period of , passenger traffic declined by 3. For comparison, the port had 1.
The construction of a terminal dedicated to the traffic of coal from South America and destined for the United Kingdom will put an end to the haemorrhage of the activity of the port.
The fishing industry is affected by the crisis affecting the entire industry, and the port has seen its fleet decline. This sector has been widely restructured over the past twenty years.
The military arsenal saw the end of the construction of the Redoutable -class submarines and expanded its customer base, until then exclusively of the Navy, prior to being privatised in Partnerships with Pakistan and India have concluded to make the construction term at home.
The CMN, which employed 1, people at the beginning of the s, modernised and automated, and now has employees. The company diversified into large luxury yachts, without abandoning the military market, and has signed such contracts with the United Arab Emirates and Qatar through the Franco- Lebanese businessman Iskandar Safa , owner since While these two military companies have experienced reductions in loads the number of jobs at the Arsenal increased from 6, including 1, subcontracted, in , to 2, including subcontractors , and the companies have repositioned in the nautical industry.
A network of subcontractors and specialists formed around this hub through Ameris France established in under the name of Cap 50 export , specialised in the research and the supply of spare parts for ships and military aircraft , the Efinor group founded in , specialising in metallurgy, nuclear decommissioning and engineering , MPH help in project control, employees.
At Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue , Facnor has become a global specialist of sailing reels. The Navy employs nearly 3, officials in the agglomeration, especially in the context of administration maritime prefecture , maritime safety customs, CROSS, Abeille , logistical support of the French Navy and foreign passage, and of training.
Metallurgy has long represented a large source of employment in the agglomeration. Around the Arsenal and its boilermakers , several metalworking and mechanical industries were formed from the early s.
This is the case of the oldest business the city, the Simon Brothers company, founded in , which went from being a mechanical workshop to a steam agricultural machinery manufacturer and then to an agribusiness in a half a century.
Manufacturing guns in and , the company became a world leader in churns and mixers for the butter industry. Later, the UIE began business in Cherbourg in , for the construction of oil platforms , but closed in The food industry, essential in Lower Normandy, is not absent from the employment pool.
A farm raising salmon in the harbour, abbatoirs handling farmed livestock of Nord-Cotentin, and several processing companies exist.
The Simon Brothers 50 employees have supplied equipment for the cider and dairy industries for more than a century. Both, regarded as flagships of the group, specialised respectively in microwave and electronic telephone exchanges.
However, Alcatel decided to close the Querqueville factory in , Codifur then took over part of the business with hundreds of employees.
In , it also offloaded the Tourlaville unit to Sanmina-SCI , which relocated its production six years later. Socoval, a manufacturer of menswear of the Cantoni Group from Italy, is the last textile factory of the Cotentin and employs about employees, since the social plan of , which resulted in the loss of about 40 employees.
Economic partners now rely on the "mastery of atmosphere", i. Having experience of work involving nuclear risk, it wants to transfer these skills to the food, electronics and pharmaceutical industries.
Two courses have been designed for this purpose: Trade employs nearly 1, people in the city centre,  but the decline in cross-Channel traffic has caused a big shortfall, exacerbated by the fragile local economy.
Grocery chains, equipment and home appliances have left the city centre for out-of-town shopping centres. The number of fast food outlets doubled between and , while the strength of the traditional catering has stagnated.
Cherbourg-Octeville, the largest city of the department, is the main centre for administration and services for the Cotentin.
The same goes for the education sector with four public and four private schools, a marine high school and aquaculture, a university campus and several graduate schools.
Public employment represents an important part with, in addition to the hospital and schools, municipal and community staff. Jobs in the construction sector are divided between Faucillion 80 employees , Eiffage 75 employees and Colas 60 employees.
The cruise terminal also attracts liners each year. The marina of 1, spaces is the first French port of call 11, per year. The capacity of the city was, as of 1 January , 15 hotels and rooms.
Canton of Cherbourg-Octeville-1 to the west and Cherbourg-Octeville-2 in the east, which also includes the town of La Glacerie.
The arrondissement of Cherbourg has municipalities and , inhabitants. Cherbourg-Octeville also has the headquarters of the maritime prefecture of the English Channel and the North Sea , whose authority extends from the Bay of Mont Saint-Michel to the Belgian border.
The maritime quarter of Cherbourg initials: CH is restricted to the limits of the department. The postal codes from prior to the merger of have been preserved: Cherbourg is historically, with the Arsenal and the port, the main focus of labour and trades unions of the department of Manche.
However, the Cherbourg workers do not lean towards radical or revolutionary movements, nor to yellow unionism , traditionally preferring the reformist tendencies.
These choices are reflected politically into a strong center-left anchor, dominated by Socialist-radicals and independent Socialists, before whom the SFIO and the Socialist Party are not imposed.
Similarly, the right won the town hall of Octeville in , for a term, by the division of the left. Bernard Cazeneuve was elected Mayor of Cherbourg-Octeville during the municipal election , and re-elected in March with The latter was re-elected following the victory of his list with The municipal council is composed of 39 members including the mayor and eleven assistants.
The investment budget is included in the multiannual programme "Unite the city" , presented in December by Bernard Cazeneuve. It sees a transformation of the newly amalgamated city through refurbishment of the pool and Port Chantereyne, development of the Bassins zone, filling the retaining channel, and the construction of the sailing school.
Cherbourg is twinned with: Louis XVI removed the viscountcy of Cherbourg by edict in November , and transferred the rights of justice to the Bailiwick of Valognes.
Cherbourg became a town and district in January , seat of a justice of the peace and a civil and criminal court. Under the Directory, they were replaced by a simple police court, attended by a justice of the peace, and a police correctional court.
After his arrival in the city, Napoleon established a Court of first instance by the Decree of 19 July The city is today one of the three main judicial hubs of Manche, along with Coutances and Avranches.
A remand prison is located in the city centre, behind the buildings of the court. As a result of the justice reform presented in by Rachida Dati, the jurisdiction of the Court of Valognes will be integrated to that of Cherbourg.
The Pasteur hospital houses the Institute of training in nursing of Cherbourg-Octeville. The Group FIM, training service of the two chambers of commerce and industry of la Mancha, manages the school of trade and distribution, and since , the Institute of promotion and marketing boating, forming alternating a fortnight of accreditation in the field of boating shipbuilding, nautical services company, marinas, etc.
The club has also two other senior male teams in the League of Lower Normandy. The Association sportive Amont-Quentin, which had two district teams until June ,  had to cease its activities.
The Octeville Hague Sport, which was developing its teams in , was unable to present any team for the season. In cycling, Cherbourg has been a city of arrival for the Tour de France on sixteen occasions: Cherbourg was a departure city in The second stage of the Tour de France finishes at Cherbourg.
NC'HOP left the competition in It was closed in and renovated as a University campus. The parish of Saint-Sauveur of Octeville, which also covers Nouainville has three sites in the commune: Protestants have a temple of the Reformed Church since , rebuilt after the war in , and a Pentecostal Evangelical church affiliated with the Assemblies of God.
The Evangelical Baptist Church has been present since in the agglomeration and is currently located in Tourlaville. Cherbourg and Octeville experienced two major waves of immigration of Muslim population, the late s and during the s, after the construction of the neighbourhoods of Amont-Quentin, Provinces and Maupas, and then in the s, with the major construction sites of the La Hague reprocessing site and the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant.
The work of the seawall and the military port in Cherbourg led many soldiers and engineers, for whom this step was often an important moment in their career.
For twenty years, he realised the improvement of the commercial port, and the digging of the docks of the military port , constituting the New Arsenal.
Among the engineers of the Directorate of construction and naval weapons , included Augustin-Louis Cauchy and also Maxime Laubeuf.
At the origin of the military port, Napoleon , who visited the city in , "Revient" in Cherbourg in during the return of his remains to France, aboard La Belle Poule , before being taken to Les Invalides.
A transatlantic port of the 20th century, Cherbourg saw Hollywood stars arrive, such as Charlie Chaplin , who organised his disembarkation in to a press conference in the gare maritime , critical of the McCarthyist America that he left.
The port saw a lot of famous people, including businessman Benjamin Guggenheim for his fatal voyage on the Titanic. Cinema then gave Cherbourg another lasting reputation, through the images of Jacques Demy and music by Michel Legrand , in The Umbrellas of Cherbourg.
Earlier, Frida Boccara , knew great success in with her song Cherbourg avait raison. The letters were not left with academician Georges Grente , superior of the Saint-Paul Institute, and Ernest Psichari , soldier and writer, whose garrison stay in Cherbourg in with the 2nd colonial artillery regiment inspires L'Appel des armes.
In addition, the provision of artistic education is rich, with the Film Industry Institute of Normandy, the school of fine arts and the municipal music school, labelled as a conservatory for communal influence, which has registrants.
However, the city lacks a large capacity venue, the theatre can accommodate only spectators. After the bitter failure of Cherbourg-Land , this problem has not been resolved at the level of the Cotentin.
The former home of Emmanuel Liais , mayor of Cherbourg, astronomer and explorer, houses since the Museum of Natural History and Ethnography, the oldest museum in Cherbourg founded in , with curio cabinet, collection of stuffed animals, fossils, minerals and ethnographic objects Egypt, Asia, Oceania, America and Africa , archaeological treasures and library science.
The Thomas-Henry Fine Arts Museum , named after its first patron , was inaugurated in and is now the third collection of Normandy with paintings and sculptures from the 15th to the 20th century.
Located in the cultural centre, at the back of the theatre, it presents paintings by French, Flemish, Spanish and Italian artists, as well as sculptures.
It is installed in the Fort du Roule, centrepiece of the defence of Cherbourg taken by the Americans on 25 June Dedicated to oceanographic exploration, it is a complex installed since in a part of the remains of the old transatlantic station.
It also has a Norman fonds , an old fonds devoted to botany and another to travel. The former barracks of the Abbey, dating back to the start of the works of the large dam in 18th-century, has housed one of the five regional centres of history of the National Navy, alongside Brest , Lorient , Rochefort and Toulon , since The archives of the maritime district of the Channel and the North Sea are grouped here, and the library of the Navy founded in in Cherbourg and specialising in maritime history with its 23, works.
Each year, a network of writing workshops are organised in the metropolitan area, the Mercurielles , and the Festival of the Book and of Youth Comic Books since The cinema occupies a significant place in the life of Cherbourg.
The film was shot in the summer of , and which still contributes to the international renown of the city. Yet long before, at the time of the splendor of the transatlantic liners, Cherbourg was a port of arrival, departure or transit for many stars, including Charlie Chaplin and Burt Lancaster , etc.
The city has a fleet of 17 permanent cinema rooms, distributed over two sites, including one labelled as Art et essai Revival house.
The cinema had 90, admissions in The interior frescoes of R. Lecoq, representing Aeolus and Vulcan , were distinguished in by the label "20th century heritage" of the Ministry of Culture.
Several cinemas have disappeared, such as the Eldorado destroyed, Place de la Republique , the Eden Rue Cachin , the Vox former patronage room which became a second room of Le Trident theatre , and the Saint-Joseph Rue des Ormes , etc.
The Cherbourg population spoke le haguais , a variant of Cotentinais Norman , while having some specifics regarding the pronunciation of certain words.
Prior to this, the rules of priority on the road were very complicated, right of way being given according to the social rank of each passenger.
Thus, it is said that passengers had to get off a coach to compare their titles and so decide who would pass first, according to the degrees of nobility!
The Italians are mad, but good, drivers; the French are generally just stupid. The Spanish live somewhere in between!
There is none of the habitual lane discipline you see in Britain; straying across the white lines is optional.
If you are unaccustomed to driving a continental, left-hand drive vehicle, you will have a great deal more to cope with on top of that.
So, if you wanna live, drop your speed and drive much more defensively than most sane people drive, even than in Britain. Maybe this will start to change now, as even the French central government has had enough and is heavily cracking down on the situation.
They are bringing in speed cameras  , and are already becoming rather keen as it is realised how much money can be made from them. France is highly devolved, and so the local police get creative.
A recent example was them lurking in a side road with a white line in a nearly deserted village and watching to make sure that the wheels of any emerging car completely stopped before proceeding - another nice little earner.
Another French finickety neuroticism is only parking in spaces facing in the direction of travel. That will be another fifty euros, Monsieur - ker-ching.
It is important to realise that people from abroad, or from another French department, are a delightful source of painless revenue, subsidising local taxes.
On sunny days, during the tourist season, it is common to see gendarmes gathering like flies around roundabouts - so much better and more profitable than being cooped up indoors.
Once you are off the motorways, road quality varies considerably. France is much more decentralised than the UK, so every local commune [local authority] makes its own decisions.
This means you can be tootling along a road with a good, well-kept surface and suddenly, without warning, the quality can drop dramatically as you move from one commune to another.
In France, you pay through the nose for most motorways [ autoroutes ] there are a few free motorways, around large cities and in Northern France but there is one great joy and luxury that comes with this cost — an immense variety of aires.
Read more about the autoroute network and the more interesting aires in motorway aires, introduction , also accessible from the drop-down menu at the top of this page.
You drive on the A As crude oil prices fell in , fuel prices went down Is this the real reason why the French government has jacked up the tax on fuels again, rather than the official line of reducing air pollution?
This makes rather hollow the claims that diesel is more polluting. Of course, there are still a small number of older, highly polluting diesel vehicles about, but most prefer to trade those in for more efficient, and so less polluting, newer models.
From the 1st of January , all vehicle fuel prices will increase by 2. In addition, gazole will increase by a further 2 centimes per litre, making the total increase for gazole 4.
It is said that the additional portion of increased tax is to compensate for the collapse of the ecotax or environmental tax on trucks.
The ecotax was to be charged on heavy goods vehicles [ poids lourds - PL], the original plan being to register the movements of heavy goods vehicles on non-motorway roads, then send bills charged a per-kilometre road tax.
However, riots, road blocks and lorry go-slow demos [ escargots - snails] on major roads during has forced the tax to be abandoned.
Now the government is wary of upsetting commercial drivers further by targeting taxes solely at them. The government had been in a legal battle with the gantry constructors over cancelling their contract.
This specified the constructors were to receive a portion of the revenue to be generated in payment for footing the construction bill.
This agreement includes paying the salary for a year of the white-collar employees made redundant, many of whom had taken out mortgages on the basis of an excellent, government-funded salary.
The final amount to be repaid is just under a billion euro, at million euro. Another reason why fuel prices will not drop to their current natural level.
Prices from French roadside and motorway service stations are higher than those at supermarkets. From late July , the new Macron government created a very useful website showing the current fuel prices at service stations in each commune.
This is done practically in real time, using the price declarations the service stations have to make to the government for tax purposes.
Le prix des carburants [app. Despite the recent trend of crude oil prices dropping , the French government's campaign against fossil fuels is meaning that fuel prices continue to rise month by month.
This steady price rise is reinforced by supermarkets and others often not passing on price reductions resulting from crude price drops.
Sometimes they forget themselves, and have a Friday and Saturday offer at 'cost price', deducting the fossil fuel tax. Note that the differential between supermarket and motorway fuel price varies over time.
The cost of diesel [ gazole ] higher at French roadside service stations, and even higher at motorway ones. But if you drive on the tolled motorways, the tolls will cost you over 10 centimes a mile  , approximately two-thirds the fuel cost, but see the update on autoroute tolls, January Because of the recent fuel price rises, motorway tolls are now a smaller proportion of the overall cost of motorway driving, though obviously, the monetary cost of going by motorway is always higher than travelling by main roads.
Thus, driving on the tolled French motorways is somewhat a luxury. Some motorways are not tolled, especially around large cities and in northern France.
However, driving long distances through France off-motorway can be very tiring and tiresome - winding through village after village, and cramped and crowded towns.
There are long stretches where overtaking is difficult and lumbering lorries are routine. It can add much time to your journey, while not improving the nerves or the mood.
To add to the fun, given the French standard of signing , in the larger towns without a bypass it is also all too easy to become lost, especially at night.
Historic price information is held at end note 10 below for reference purposes. From 12 September , the labelling of the pumps at fuel stations Europe-wide will change, 'thanks' to an European directive.
French drivers will soon find no "unleaded 95" at the pump, nor "unleaded 98" or "diesel". From 12 October onwards, a single signing is being set up throughout the European Union and in neighbouring countries such as Norway, Iceland and Turkey as a consequence of a European directive.
These new acronyms will be indicated on each of the fuel pumps as well as on the dispensing pistols, and also on new vehicles put on sale from this date.
Each type of fuel is now represented by a shape: These new indicators will be present on new vehicles, near the fuel cap, as well as at service stations.
But, insist the professionals, it will not replace the current labels, which are accustomed to motorists. Taxing fossil fuels continues. Previously, taxes were increasing on diesel and falling on petrol.
From , they increase on both, but faster on diesel than on petrol, to align the two fuels' prices, it having been decreed that all diesel engines are more polluting than petrol ones.
According to the calculations of the French Union of Petroleum Industries UFIP , taxes on diesel could increase by 31 cents per litre by , if the progress in the new finance law is fully implemented.
For petrol, the increase will be 15 cents. This nice little earner punishes the many diesel vehicle drivers just not able to just buy a more expensive but apparently ecological, electric or hybrid car.
The scrappage premiums are not realistic for the less well off, often living outside large towns, so dependant on individual transport. Since July , when the speed limit on most secondary roads was reduced from 90 kph to 80 kph, the illusion of reducing pollution has been amplified.
Cars are designed to have a cruising speed range where the car hums along, comfortable at the optimal rpm range and so giving the car's best fuel consumption.
This cruising speed range was designed so the lower end of its range was near to the secondary road speed maximum - 90 kph. And what happens when the car is forced to drive at a lower speed?
Fuel consumption increases, the car cannot produce sufficient heat to enable the catalytic converter, that converts carbon monoxide and other hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide and water, to work effectively.
French fuel price changes. Also see pre-route planning with GoogleMaps. Use a large road atlas, such as the one published by Michelin , for your preliminary trip planning.
Once you have determined the general route, then use on-line planners which can give detailed information on distances, toll and fuel costs, and the location of speed cameras.
Blue Series maps are 1: However, this is a little haphazard, especially for the high-scale versions, as these places usually only hold maps local to them.
Mappy is an excellent, if slightly clumsy, on-line road planner. It also gives you the option of checking your toll costs for using motorways.
Map24 is another online route-planning site, with several Java-powered interactive facilities. Although in French for the map of France, Map24 is mostly intuitive to use and can even be fun.
It is possible to look at the map related to your chosen itinerary in various degrees of three dimensions [VUE 3-D], as if low-flying over the land.
Remember to prepare your car to be both legal and safe in France. In , there were 15, level crossings on the national railway network - 0.
Bearing these numbers in mind, there is a grand total of 80 level crossing cameras in France, that is one for every crossings. A rare creature then, that is installed on what is called "priority crossings".
The camera is very similar to those used with traffic red lights. The essential difference is the level crossing red flashing lights are synced to alternate with the camera flashes so each snapshot can highlight when the signal turned on.
The first flash occurs when a vehicle starts to cross the line, and a second flash follows when the vehicle has continued their course at the crossing, whether on the railway line or when crossing the barrier line.
In order to allow users to stop safely to comply with the flashing signalling, there is a safety delay, similar to the amber light for traffic lights, is set on the equipment.
This delay is 3 seconds in built-up areas and 5 seconds outside built-up areas. It is only after this time that illegal crossings will trigger the radar flash.
Some drivers take three seconds even to react, while a common reaction time of 1. At least that time again is needed for the car to stop under braking.
When driving at 50 kph the maximum legal speed in towns , the reaction distance is just over 7. This is not good when you are being followed by the typical French tailgater.
Clearly, someone is more interested in money than common sense. From Monday 14th September , a new generation of speed cameras is coming into full service, with fines being issued to vehicles flashed.
The new cameras photograph both front and rear number plates. One version of the cameras photographs one car two times - as it approaches the camera and then again as it goes past and away there is little further information available on these cameras.
In the other option, the cameras photo the number plates of approaching cars in one lane, as well as those of cars going away on the further lane of a two-lane road.
It also means that the authorities can have a photo of the driver's face, which could help in cases when the car's legal owner was not the offending driver.
For the cameras that will photo cars on either lane of a two-lane road, it doubles the number of possible finable victims.
These cameras can only be mounted at one side of a road, at ground level. They do not function on gantries, nor in the centre of a dual carriageway road or motorway, not on a pole like traffic light camera installations.
Kindly, "information panels are systematically installed" in each direction on the roads controlled by such equipment. And they are different to the current warning information panels.
So when you see a new-type sign, you will look at both road sides to spot the camera. In all, cameras will being put into service now.
This will increase to by the end of , and a further is expected in Many of the cameras are existing cameras that are having their software up-graded.
These cameras are being introduced now because the number of deaths on the roads is increasing again. Well, they do not make as much money.
Cameras in accident-prone zones only flash 4, times in a year, while those in non-accident prone zones flash 12, times. There are over 9 million automatic road cameras operating in France.
When a vehicle is flashed, the traffic control computer systems have to co-ordinate with other data systems holding driver's and vehicle details in order to be able to fine and deduct points.
If a person is driving a company car, the company most often pays the fine. Lastly, a good percentage of cases fail for 'technical' reasons.
Mind you, it's still a good thing to drive at a moderate speed, both for your nerves and for helping to minimise carbon dioxide emissions!
Their length may be metres, 2 km, or 4 km. Until your GPS is up to date, disable the radar camera detection facility.
Then you can update your GPS software later. These signs are often on dual carriageways or other trunk roads.
Speed indicator powered by a photo-voltaic panel. The speed indicated is very unreliable. In this case, the speed being driven was about 75 kph.
Note that sometimes there is a speed camera not long after the speed sign. Heaven knows whether speed cameras are just as unreliable.
As well as these immediate speed detectors and cameras, there are also being installed measured-distance speed radar systems that flash up a driver's car registration number and the words TROP VITE!
So far, these gantry signs are operated by the motorway concessionaires, for "the drivers' education".
It is unclear whether these speed detectors will inform drivers that their speed has been recorded. It's all part of driver intimidation.
It is being announced in French newspapers , by September , many new rules proposed to penalise bad drivers. These new strictures, no doubt, would help Nicholas Sarkozy in the run up to the next Presidential election in , while much increased fines would help the French Treasury, which like so many others is suffering in the current financial malaise.
A greater constraint on speeding will also control fuel consumption. During , the frequent contradictory, badly placed road signs have even come to the notice of the French TV news and the government.
In contrast, French speed cameras are well forewarned - all changed, see above. Although we had been informed that the large prominent signs below would be removed progressively, this did not happen, so drivers should still keep a look out on seeing such a sign.
If you generate an itinerary using Mappy , it will locate approximately where there are any speed cameras on your route.
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